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The Oyster Harbour Catchment has a wide variety of native vegetation assemblages that varies due to soil variations and differences in rainfall. There are 5 known major assemblages found within the confines of the catchment boundaries. The main vegetation types around the coastal areas include stands of paper barks and reeds around the harbour and wetlands. There are also mixed Jarrah and Banksia heaths and Jarrah and Karri are found on sand dunes. You can commonly find peppermint woodlands in low-lying areas and in between dunes. Slightly inland from the coastal areas you will find low Jarrah, Marri and Wandoo.
Vegetation along the Kalgan River is very different at either ends of the river due to the different climatic environments. Assemblages include low Jarrah and Marri and some Karri, Sheoak and Yate further north in the lower reaches of the Kalgan. You would commonly find low Jarrah, Wandoo, Yate and Mallee in the headwaters of the Kalgan. The vegetation on the Porongurup include large stands of Karri divided by stands of Jarrah, Mallee and Marri, these commonly mix as well and can be located on the lower slopes. Surrounding lowlands contain mostly scrub with examples of Banksias, Jarrah and Mallee.
The area North of Mt Barker to the Kendenup area contains populations of Jarrah, Marri and Wandoo woodlands with pockets of Mallee and Sheoak woodlands.
The final major area is the Stirling Ranges with varying assemblages from the high to low slopes. The high slopes contain Jarrah woodlands changing into open Eucalypt woodlands on the lower slopes. Vegetation in the valleys usually consists of Jarrah, Marri and Wandoo.
Some examples of endemic/ threatened species are:
Ornduffia calthifolia — Mountain Villarsia only found on the Porongurup Mountain top
The types and distribution of native animals varies from one end of the catchment to the other. This is due to the different environmental conditions between the upper and lower catchment and changing floral assemblages. Some of these species can be found all over the catchment and in neighbouring catchments. There have been 13 recorded examples of migratory birds found around the catchment. The catchment contains approximately 30 mammal species and, 240 bird species, 30 reptile species and an unknown number of amphibians, snails and spiders.